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《中国古代“富民社会”研究的由来与旨归》摘录

TANGSONGYILAI,ZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHONGXINGQILEYIGEXINDE“FUMIN”JIECENG,ZHEISHITANGSONGSHEHUIFASHENGDESHENKESHEHUIBIANGE。“FUMIN”ZUOWEIYIGESHEHUIJIECENGYIJINGJUEQI,JIUXUNSUFAZHANCHENGWEISHEHUIDEZHONGJIANCENG、WENDINGCENGHEDONGLICENG,SHIDETANGSONGJIYIHOUZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSHEHUIJUYOULEYUYIWANGXIANZHUBUTONGDELISHITEZHENG,XINGCHENGLEYIGEXINDE“FUMINSHEHUI”。“FUMIN”,ZAISHILIAOZHONGYOUBEICHENGZUO“FUSHI”、“FUJIA”“FUHU”、“FUREN”、“FUXING”、“DUOZIZHIJIA”DENG,MOUXIEQINGKUANGXIAHAIKECHENGWEI“DAXING”、“YOUZU”、“WANGZU”、“HAOZU”、“JIANBINGZHIJIA”DENG。

“FUMIN”ZUOWEIYIGETEDINGSHEHUIRENQUNHEQUNTIDECHENGWEI,GUYIYOUZHI。DANZAIYANJIUGUOCHENGZHONGWOMENKANDAO,XIANCUNLISHIZILIAOZHONG,TANGSONGSHIQIYOUGUAN“FUMIN”DECAILIAODALIANGCHUXIANYUSHIJI。ZHEIZHUJIANYINQILEWOMENDUIZHEIYIWENTIDENONGHOUXINGQUHEGAODUZHONGSHI。ZAIDUITANGSONGSHIQIDE“FUMIN”SHILIAOJINXINGJINYIBUSHULIHEQUANMIANXITONGFENXIDEJICHUSHANG,WOMENRENWEI,ZHEIBINGFEIJINJINSHIYIGEXINDESHEHUIQUNTIDECHUXIAN,ERSHIYIGEXINDESHEHUIJIECENGDEJUEQI。

DIYI,“FUMIN”SHISHEHUIFENCENGDEJIEGUO。TANGSONGSHIQI,SUIZHESHEHUIJINGJIDEFAZHAN,SHEHUILIUDONGXIANZHUJIAKUAI,“PINFUWUDINGSHI”,PINFUGUANXICHUYUJINGCHANGXINGBIANHUAZHIZHONG;HUDENGZHICONGJIUDENGHUZHIZHUANXIANGWUDENGHUZHI;XINDESHEHUIQUNTIHEMINGCHENGBUDUANJIANZHUDANGSHISHIJI。FANCIJUNSHUOMING,TANGSONGSHIQISHIYIGESHEHUIDAFENCENGDESHIDAI。ZHIYUZHEIYANGDESHIDAIBEIJINGXIALAIKAN,ZUOWEIYONGYOUDALIANGCAIFUHELIANGHAOWENHUAJIAOYUERYOUMEIYOUZHENGZHITEQUANDEYIGEQUNTI——“FUMIN”WUYISHISHEHUILIUDONGHESHEHUIFENCENGDEJIEGUO,ERTAYOUFANGUOLAIJINYIBUCUJINZHETANGSONGSHIQIDESHEHUILIUDONGHESHEHUIFENCENG。LIKAISHEHUILIUDONG、SHEHUIFENCENGLISHIQINGJING,JIUMEIYOU“FUMIN”DEJUEQI,YEMEIYOU“FUMIN”JIECENGDECHENGZHANGZHUANGDA。

DIER,“FUMIN”XUNSUCHENGWEIZHONGGUOSHEHUIJINGJIGUANXIHEJIEJIGUANXIDEHEXIN,CHANSHENGLEZHONGDAERSHENYUANDESHEHUIYINGXIANG。SONGDAIYILAI,“FUMIN”JIECENGRENSHUSUIRANBINGBUYIDINGZHANDUOSHU,DANQUESHIFAHUILEGUANJIANXINGDEZUOYONG。BEISONGSUZHECENGZHICHU,DANGSHISHEHUIXIANSHIZHONGFUJIADAXING“ZHOUXIANLAIZHIYIWEIQIANG,GUOJIASHIZHIYIWEIGU”。NANSONGYESHIYECENGLUNSHUDAO:

“FURENZHE,ZHOUXIANZHIBEN,SHANGXIAZHISUOLAIYE。”DISAN,“FUMIN”ZAITANGSONGYILAIDEZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHONG,YIZHIXIANXIANCHUQIANGJINGDECHENGZHANGXING。ZHEIZHONGQIANGJINGDECHENGZHANGXING,JIZHONGTIXIANZAIGUOJIADUIQIDEYILAIYUELAIYUEDA,SHENZHICHENGWEIGUOJIAJINXINGJICENGSHEHUIKONGZHIDEZHONGYAOYIKAO。RUSONGDAIDEYAQIAN、LIZHENGDENGYI,ZHUYAOJIUSHIYOU“FUMIN”DANREN。

DAOLEYUANDAI,SUIRANJINGGUOLECHAODAIGENGTI,DAN“FUMIN”DECHENGZHANGBINGMEIYOUYINWEICHAODAIDEGENGTIERSHOUDAOYINGXIANG。YOUYUYUANCHAOSHIYIMASHANGDETIANXIA,BUANZHONGYUANZHIDU,ZHENGLINGBUQI,FANERWEI“FUMIN”JIECENGDEFAZHANTIGONGLEKUANSONGDEHUANJING。SHIDE“FUMIN”JIECENGJIXUCHENGXITANGSONGYILAIDEFAZHANZHISHI,DEYIGENGXUHEZHUANGDA。……DAOLEMINGDAI,SHELILIANGZHANGZHIDU,YI“TIANTUDUOZHEWEILIANGZHANG,DUQIXIANGFUSHUI”,YOUSHELILIJIAZHIDU,“YILIZHIZHONGTUIDINGLIANGDUOZHESHIRENWEIZHIZHANG”,“GUANSHEYILIZHISHI”。ZHENGSHIYI“FUMIN”JIECENGWEIYIKAODUIXIANG,MINGDAIZAIJIANGNANDIQUJIANLIQILEYOULIANGZHANG、LIJIAGOUCHENGDE“YILIANGMINZHILIANGMIN”DEJICENGKONGZHITIXI。ZHENGSHIYINWEI“FUMIN”JIECENGZAISHEHUIZHONGRIYIZHONGYAODEZUOYONG,GUOJIADUI“FUMIN”CHANSHENGLEYUELAIYUEDADEYILAIXING。ZHEIZHONGZHUANGKUANG,YIZHICHIXUDAOQINGDAI。QINGRENHUANGZHONGJIANGENJUTADEGUANCHA,ZHIJIEZHICHU:

“JINZHICHENGSHIYUGUANZHE,LVFUMINYE。”KEYISHUO,LISONG、YUAN、MING、QING,“FUMIN”YIZHISHIGUOJIALAIYIYIKAOJINXINGJICENGKONGZHIHESHEHUIZHILIDEZHONGYAOLILIANG。ZHEIJIJIZHONGTIXIANLE“FUMIN”DECHENGZHANGXING,YOUCHONGFENSHUOMING“FUMIN”QUESHIDAIBIAOLEXINDESHEHUIFAZHANFANGXIANG。ZUOWEIYIGEXINDESHEHUIJIECENG,“FUMIN”JIECENGDUIZHONGTANGYILAISHEHUIDEYINGXIANG,WUYISHIQUANMIANDEHESHENKEDE:

DIYI,QUANMIANXING。ZHONGTANGYILAI,“FUMIN”JIECENGDUISHEHUIDEYINGXIANGJUYOUQUANMIANXING。JUTIERYAN,ZAITANGSONGYILAIDEZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSHEHUIZHONG,LIRUXIANGCUNSHEHUIJINGJIGUANXIHEJIEJIGUANXIDEFAZHANBIANHUA、GUOJIADUIXIANGCUNSHEHUIDEKONGZHI、XIANGCUNSHEHUIDENEIZAIFAZHANDONGLIYUNONGCUNJINGJIDEFAZHAN、XIANGCUNWENHUAJIAOYUDEFAZHANYUXINGSHENG、SONGDAIYAQIANLIZHENGHEMINGDAILIANGZHANGZHIDECHUXIAN、SONGDAI“DIFANGJINGYING”JIECENGHEMINGQING“SHISHENSHEHUI”DEXINGCHENGNAIZHIZONGZUSHILIDEFAZHAN,SHENZHIZHURUMINGDAISUSONGDIQUZHONGFUZHEIXIETESHUDEJINGJIXIANXIANG,SHIJISHANGDOUYU“FUMIN”JIECENGYOUGUAN。NANSONGYESHIXIANGXILUNSHULEFURENZAISHEHUIZHONGDEYINGXIANG:

“XIAOMINZHIWUTIANZHE,JIATIANYUFUREN;DETIANERWUYIWEIGENG,JIEZIYUFUREN;SUISHIYOUJI,QIUYUFUREN;QISHENZHE,YONGZUONUBI,GUIYUFUREN;YOUSHOUMOZUO,PAIYOUJIYI,CHUANSHIYUFUREN,ERYOUSHANGDANGGUANSHU,ZACHUWUSHU,LICHANGYOUFEISHIZHIZEERWUYIYINGSHANGMING,CHANGQUJUYUFUREN。”ZHEIBIAOMING“FUMIN”SHISHEHUIJINGJIGUANXIHESHEHUIJIEJIGUANXIDEHEXIN。ZHANGSHOUSHUOSONGDAI“ZHONGSHANGZHIHUSHAOYOUYISHI,JIDUSHUYINGJU,HUORUXUEXIAO”,BIAOMINGZUOWEIZHONGSHANGHUDE“FUMIN”SHITUIDONGXIANGCUNWENHUAJIAOYUFAZHANDEZHONGYAOYIKAO。SONGDAIYI“FUMIN”CHONGDANGYAQIAN、LIZHENG,MINGDAIYI“FUMIN”CHONGDANGLIANGZHANG,BIAOMING“FUMIN”SHIGUOJIAKONGZHIXIANGCUNDEZHONGYAOLILIANG。KEYIHAOBUKUAZHANGDISHUO,“FUMIN”SHIGUOJIADUIXIANGCUNSHISHITONGZHIDEZHONGYAOYIKAO,SHISHEHUIJINBUDEZHUYAOTUIDONGLI。ZHENGSHIYINWEI“FUMIN”DUISHEHUIDEZHEIZHONGQUANMIANXINGDEYINGXIANG,ZHIYOUXITONGDIDUI“FUMIN”JINXINGYANJIU,CAINENGZHENZHENGLIJIETANGSONGYILAIZHONGGUOSHEHUITEBIESHIXIANGCUNSHEHUIFAZHANYUBIANQIANDELISHISHISHIHESHENCENGLUOJI。

DIER,SHENKEXING。

“FUMIN”JIECENGDEJUEQI,YINQILEZHONGTANGYILAISHEHUIJINGJIGUANXI、JIEJIGUANXIDEJUDABIANHUA,TEBIESHITUIDONGLETANGSONGYILAIQIYUEZUDIANGUANXIZHUDAODIWEIDEQUELI,TONGSHIYINQILEGUOJIAXIANGCUNZHILIFANGSHIHEZHILIJIEGOUDEZHONGDADIAOZHENG。QIYUEZUDIANGUANXIZIQINSHANGYANG“FEIJINGTIAN,KAIQIANMO”、MINDEMAIMAITUDIYIHOUJIUYIJINGCHUXIAN,DANYIZHIMEIYOUZAISHEHUIZHONGZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI。

“FUMIN”DEXINGQI,WEIQIYUEZUDIANJINGJIGUANXIDEJINYIBUFAZHANTIGONGLEXINDETIAOJIAN。YINWEI“FUMIN”YU“PINMIN”DOUSHIGUOJIADEBIANHUQIMIN,TAMENZHIJIANBUNENGYILIANGWEIJIAN,ZHINENGJIECHENGPINGDENGDEQIYUEZUDIANJINGJIGUANXI。ZHEISHIYIZHONGZUIJIADEGUANYUTUDISHENGCHANJINGYINGDEZHIDUANPAIYUXIANSHIXUANZE。YANGWANLI《YUYUBINFUYOUXIANGSHU》JIZAILEYIGEDIANXINGANLI:

“MOUZHILIZHONGYOUFURENYAN,QITIANZHIYIQINGJIZHEWANYAN,QIHUOZHIYIZHOUJIZHEQIANYAN。QISUOYIFUZHEBUYIJIWEIZHI,ERYIRENWEIZHIYE。TARIHUOSHUOZHIYUE:

‘ZIZHISUOYIJUQIFUYI,WEIZHISUOYIYUNQIFUYE。ZIZHITIANWANQING,ERTIANZHIRUZHESUIWUQIAN,ZIZHIHUOQIANZHOU,ERZHOUZHIRUZHESUIWUBAI,ZEZIZHILIBUQUANYUZHUERFENYUKEYE。’FURENZHEYUSHIJINQUQITIANYUZHOUERZIGENGQIEZISHANGYAN,BUSANNIANERPIN。HEXIZHIFENERFU,JINZHIQUANERPINZAI?QIRUZHEXIGUANGERJINAI,QICHUZHEXISHENGERJINFEIYE。”ZHEIWEIFUZHEMEIYOUXUANZEZUDIANZHIJINGYING,YEJIUMEIYOUXUANZEZUIYOUXIAODEZHIDUANPAI,JIEGUODAOZHIJINGYINGDESHIBAI。KEYISHUO,QIYUEZUDIANZHISHI“FUMIN”JIECENGZUIJIADEZHIDUXUANZE。

ERCONGJICENGZHILILAIKAN,MINGDAICHUQIJIANLIDELIANGZHANG、LIJIAZHIDU,GENBENSHANGSHUOJIUSHIYIZHONGYIKAOLIANGZHANG、LIZHANGDENGXIANGCUN“FUMIN”JIECENGSHIXING“YILIANGMINZHILIANGMIN”DEJICENGKONGZHIMOSHI。GUANFUXUANYONG“FUMIN”JIECENGCHONGDANGLIANGZHANG、LIZHANG,SHISHIDUIXIANGCUNJICENGDEKONGZHI,JIKEYIFAHUITAMENZAIXIANGCUNZHONGGUYOUDEQUANWEI,GENGHAODISHISHIXIANGCUNKONGZHIHEFUSHUIZHENGSHOU;YOUKEYITONGGUOLIANGZHANG、LIJIAZHIDU,JIANG“FUMIN”JIECENGNARUDAOGUANFUZHUDAODEZUZHIKUANGJIAZHIZHONG,YIJIAQIANGDUI“FUMIN”JIECENGDEZHIYUEHEKONGZHI。YINCI,LIANGZHANG、LIZHANGDENG“FUMIN”JIECENGKEYISHIWEIZHENGFUZAIJICENGSHEHUIDE“BAOSHUIREN”HUO“DAILIREN”。ZHENGSHICHONGFENLIYONGHEYIKAO“FUMIN”JIECENG,MINGCHUZAIJIANGNANDENGDIJIANLIQILEYILIJIAZHIDUWEIHEXINDE“YILIANGMINZHILIANGMIN”DEXIANGCUNZHIXU。YILIJIAZUZHIWEIJICHU,LIANGZHANG、LIJIAGOUCHENGLEMINGCHUJIANGNANDIQUWANZHENGDEJICENGZUZHITIXI。

“FUMIN”JIECENGDUISHEHUIYINGXIANGDESHENKEXINGKEJIANYIBAN。

ZHENGSHIYINWEI“FUMIN”JIECENGZAIZHONGTANGYILAIDUIZHONGGUOSHEHUIFAZHANCHANSHENGDEJUDAYINGXIANG,WOMENCAIDUANYAN,SUIZHE“FUMIN”JIECENGDEJUEQI,ZHONGTANGYILAIDEZHONGGUOSHEHUIXINGCHENGLEYIGEYOUBIEYUHANTANGDEXINSHEHUI,ZHEIGESHEHUIJIUSHI“FUMINSHEHUI”。

JINNIANLAI,WOMENYIZHIZHILIYUGOUJIANZHONGGUOGUDAI“FUMINSHEHUI”DELILUNTIXI,TICHULEWUGEYOUGUANZHONGGUOGUDAI“FUMINSHEHUI”LILUNTIXIDEXUESHULUNDUAN:①“FUMIN”JIECENGSHITANGSONGYILAIZHONGGUOGUDAISHEHUIDEXINXINGJIECENG;②“FUMIN”JIECENGYIJINGXINGQIBIANXUNSUCHENGWEIZHONGGUOGUDAISHEHUIDEZHONGJIANCENG、DONGLICENGHEWENDINGCENG;③“FUMIN”YUGUOJIADEGUANXISHITANGSONGYILAIZHONGGUOSHEHUIZUIHEXINDEGUANXI;④“SHISHENSHEHUI”SHIZHONGGUOGUDAI“FUMINSHEHUI”DEZUIGAOJIEDUAN,YESHIZUIHOUJIEDUAN;⑤ZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSHEHUIYICIJINGLILESHANGGUDE“BUZUSHEHUI”、QINHANWEIJINDE“HAOMINSHEHUI”、TANGSONGYILAIDE“FUMINSHEHUI”,BINGZUIZHONGXIANGZHE“SHIMINSHEHUI”YANJINDELISHIGUOCHENG,ZHEIYISHEHUIYANJINJIWEIZHONGGUOGUDAISHIDEXINTIXI。

(LINWENXUN)(ZHAIZILUNWENQIANYANHEDIYI、DIERBUFEN)

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